This is a basic guide to installing Debian GNU/Hurd on a system which either already has Debian GNU/Linux installed or on which Debian GNU/Linux is to be installed. For basic guides to installing and using Debian GNU/Linux see Basic GNU/Linux Guides .
The method chosen is to use a tar archive file which contains a basic working Debian GNU/Hurd system and untar this on a partition dedicated to GNU/Hurd. You will need to download this tar file (see below). This tar file contains a 'snap-shot' of the latest base-system of Debian GNU/Hurd by Marcus Brinkmann, one of the main Debian developers for GNU/Hurd. This tar file has made installing Debian GNU/Hurd fairly easy.
At present, new installations of GNU/Hurd are booted by a Grub boot
floppy (where Grub stands for Grand Unified Boot-loader) and you will need
to download the image and write it to a floppy disc (see below).
The Hurd partition should be less than 1GB since this is currently the maximum usable with the Hurd. Between 500 and 900 MB is best. You should also create a Hurd swap partition of around 64 MB. Note that the Hurd swap partition is the same type as Linux swap (type 82).
GNU/Hurd uses different names for hard drives and partitions, with Grub - the Hurd boot-loader - using yet other names. The following list shows the differences:
Linux Hurd Grub
Name Name Name
hda1 hd0s1 (hd0,0)
hda2 hd0s2 (hd0,1)
hda3 hd0s3 (hd0,2)
Thus, hda1 - under GNU/Linux the first (1) partition on the first (a) IDE device (hd) - is hd0s1 under GNU/Hurd: the first slice (s1) of the first (0) IDE device (hd). Note that on systems with only one HDD, the second IDE device (normally hdc under GNU/Linux and the CD-Rom drive) is hd2.
Scsi devices are prefixed with sd so that the first partition on the first scsi drive would be sd0s1 while the first partition on the second scsi drive would be sd1s1.
The Grub name uses zero for both the first device and the first partition
on the device - using a comma to separate the device number from the partition
number, and enclosing all these in brackets. Note that both the brackets
and the comma are important.
If you already have Debian GNU/Linux installed, you need to create a Hurd partition and a Hurd swap. You can use the cfdisk utility - see man cfdisk for more details.
The Hurd partition must be Linux native type 83, and the Hurd
swap partition Linux swap.
After you have Debian GNU/Linux installed, and have a Hurd and Hurd-swap partition, boot into GNU/Linux and make a Hurd file-system on the new partition. For the rest of this Guide, hda3 is taken to be the Hurd partition, and hda4 the Hurd swap partition - the Hurd names being hd0s3 and hd0s4 with the Grub name for the Hurd root being (hd0,2). In the instructions that follow please change the names to those of your own partition(s).
To make the file-system:
mke2fs -o hurd /dev/hda3
[ Note: For details about mke2fs - such as the -o option - see man mke2fs: that is, see the manpage for mke2fs by entering man mke2fs in an xterm or at a console prompt.]
Please note that it is important you use the 1.12-4 version of the Debian package e2fsprogs (which comes with Slink 2.1) - which contains the mke2fs utility - if you are using the tarball as above, as later versions of the mke2fs utility are not suitable with the version of serverboot contained in the tarball. (The alternative is to use a later version of e2fsprogs and obtain a new serverboot from ftp://ftp.ai.mit.edu/pub/users/roland.) To check which version you have on your Debian system use
dpkg -s e2fsprogs
Also, note that if you use the new serverboot, you must uncompress it
(from bz2) as Grub can only use .gz or no compression at all.
Next, after making the file-system, you should make a new directory, gnu, on root file-system:
This is where you can mount the Hurd partition and so access GNU/Hurd files.
To mount the partition:
mount /dev/hda3 /gnu
(assuming hda4 is the Hurd swap partition).
The tar file can be obtained (at the time of writing, JD 2451533.1771, or December 20 1999 AD) from the ftp site:
with the latest being gnu_19991025.tar.gz
This site also contains the grub-image:
with the latest being grub-boot-0.5.93.1.image
[ Note: As an alternative, you could get the grub-floppy-19991023 image which is in the /contrib/marcus directory. ]
You should also get, from
which is in the /base directory;
which is in the /editors directory;
which is in the /doc directory;
which is in the /text directory.
The first is an update, by Marcus Brinkmann, of the servers contained
in his tar file; the second is the vi editor, which is essential for editing
files (IMHO); the third enables you to read the man pages, and the fourth
is required for the man-db package.
tar --same-owner -xpzf /<path to tar file.tar.gz>
Note: The options --same-owner and -p are important (see man tar for more information).
You will notice that this untars to /gnu/gnu so you will have to move
the directories to /gnu and remove the then empty /gnu/gnu directory.
Next, you need to make the Grub boot floppy. Format a new floppy disc:
superformat /dev/fd0 hd
then cd to the directory containing the Grub image and use the dd file-utility (see info dd for more information) to write the Grub image to this disc:
dd if=grub-boot-0.5.93.1.image of=/dev/fd0 bs=512
Note: the bs=512 option simply means read and write 512 bytes at a time.
To complete the installation you need to boot GNU/Hurd. First, make a note of both the Hurd and Grub names of your Hurd root filesystem - for example, if Hurd is hd0s3 then Grub name is (hd0,2). Then, with the Grub boot floppy in the floppy drive, reboot GNU/Linux.
You will see a Menu - choose GNU/Hurd hd0s1 single-user (use the arrow keys) then press the e key (to edit). The root item should be highlighted. Then press e again and change (hd0,0) to (hd0,2) - that is, the Hurd partition. Then press Return, then scroll down to kernel, press e and change the line to
kernel /boot/gnumach.gz root=hd0s3 -s
Press Return, scroll down to module, press e and change to
Then press Return and then the b key which will start the boot process. You will see information similar to that of a GNU/Linux boot and then the cursor prompt.
[ Note: If you are using the grub-floppy-19991023 the above still applies although you will see a slightly different menu and the files will end in .gz so you will not have to enter this. ]
At the prompt enter
Note the dot before the /
When this has finished, you should reboot back into GNU/Hurd to complete the installation.
Make a new directory /linux and then add a user and create a directory
in /home/<user> to copy over the base-system update tar file.
Boot back into GNU/Linux, mount the Hurd partition, then copy over hurd_20000130.deb, nvi_1.79-13.deb and the other debs to the /home/<user> directory you made.
Unmount the Hurd partition, boot back into GNU/Hurd using the Grub floppy disc and at the prompt run
dpkg -i </path to>/ hurd_20000130.deb
which will update the Hurd servers.
Then install nvi, groff, and man-db in the same way.
You will then have a working GNU/Hurd system.
settrans /servers/socket/2 /hurd/pfinet
--interface=eth0 --address=<IP address>
[ Note: This is one continuous command: the "--netmask= " part should be entered after "--address= " ]
If you have a gateway, add --gateway=<gateway address>. The addressess are those from your GNU/Linux /etc/init.d/network file. If you get an error message:
/servers/socket/2 : Device or resource busy
and it will (probably) return:
in which case run:
settrans -fg /servers/socket/2
then re-run the long settrans command above for eth0.
Note: For details about settrans see A Basic Guide to Using Debian GNU/Hurd .
You can test if the card is working by:
ping <IP address>
You can then ftp from another GNU/Linux box:
ftp <IP address>
which should show:
220 hurd FTP server (GNU inetutils 1.3.2) ready
if you have left the default host name as hurd.
You can then telnet from a GNU/Linux box to Hurd, and vice versa. Telnet
from a GNU/Linux box to the Hurd box will work fine ("out of the
box") - although there are currently a few problems from Hurd -> Linux
due to the Mach console.